Environmental Projects

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Washington Closure Hanford - 100 B Reactor Roof Repair and Replacement

Washington Closure Hanford - 100 B Reactor Roof Repair and Replacement

$1.1 million

2008

B Reactor as it stood at the height of its production days.

B reactor, the nation’s first large-scale plutonium product reactor ever built, rests on the south bank of the Columbia River. It is one of three nuclear reactors built in total secrecy during World War II as part of the top-secret Manhattan Project and operated between 1944 and 1967.

Washington Closure Hanford - 100 B Reactor Roof Repair and Replacement

Washington Closure Hanford - 100 B Reactor Roof Repair and Replacement

$1.1 million

2008

FE&C personnel suited in personal protective equipment (PPE) and fall protection equipment.

FE&C’s job was to replace and repair the ten roof sections of the B Reactor. The work was categorized as very high risk due to radiological and asbestos hazards, as well as working at extreme heights during the high heat season.

Washington Closure Hanford - 100 B Reactor Roof Repair and Replacement

Washington Closure Hanford - 100 B Reactor Roof Repair and Replacement

$1.1 million

2008

FE&C carefully working to replace and repair the B Reactor’s roof sections.

While the roof work was underway, extra precaution was proactively taken to investigate and remediate any found hazards as the plans are for this reactor was to be eventually opened to the public.

Washington Closure Hanford - 100 B Reactor Roof Repair and Replacement

Washington Closure Hanford - 100 B Reactor Roof Repair and Replacement

$1.1 million

2008

FE&C worker checks his fall protection equipment.

Today, this reactor is registered as a National Historic Landmark by the National Park Service and dozens of tours each year are given through the reactor to the general public and special groups. The long-term goal for this facility is to have it transformed into a museum to educate future generations the significance and lessons learned from Hanford and the Manhattan Project.

Bechtel - 100 B/C Burial Grounds and 100 B/C Remaining Piplines and Sewers (RPAS)

Bechtel - 100 B/C Burial Grounds and 100 B/C Remaining Piplines and Sewers (RPAS)

$32.0 million

2004 - 2007

Every workday begins with a plan of the day meeting.

FE&C held two subcontracts for related scopes of work to excavate and remove radiological waste materials in the 100 B and C areas of Hanford. Because FE&C had recently began the waste burial grounds project at B/C, when the similar, nearby RPAS project was awarded, FE&C was innovative for its client and combined the two separate projects into one functioning project team. This created substantial cost savings.

Bechtel - 100 B/C Burial Grounds and 100 B/C Remaining Piplines and Sewers (RPAS)

Bechtel - 100 B/C Burial Grounds and 100 B/C Remaining Piplines and Sewers (RPAS)

$32.0 million

2004 - 2007

Loadout of contaminated soil.

This project involved: 18 nuclear waste burial grounds and environmentally contaminated sites An estimated 375,000 bank cubic meters of waste material excavated 7,000 linear meters of steel and concrete pipe and box culverts with potential chemical, biological and radioactive contamination 336,000 Bank Cubic Meters of backfill material

Bechtel - 100 B/C Burial Grounds and 100 B/C Remaining Piplines and Sewers (RPAS)

Bechtel - 100 B/C Burial Grounds and 100 B/C Remaining Piplines and Sewers (RPAS)

$32.0 million

2004 - 2007

Backfilling the pit after remediation of all hazardous materials.

FE&C’s work was to excavate the waste and repackage it into improved contamination containers for transportation and disposal to ERDF, the Environmental Remediation Disposal Facility, for long-term safe storage.

Bechtel - 100 B/C Burial Grounds and 100 B/C Remaining Piplines and Sewers (RPAS)

Bechtel - 100 B/C Burial Grounds and 100 B/C Remaining Piplines and Sewers (RPAS)

$32.0 million

2004 - 2007

Radwaste Solutions Magazine, March/April 2005, © 2005 by the American Nuclear Society, used with permission.

There was considerable knowledge of the material in some of these sites; however, the listing of the hazards contained in each place was only as good as the record-keeping for the time frame of 1943 through 1968 – the length of B Reactor’s production run – and some undocumented constituents listed in the subcontract as “unknown media and waste forms”, which meant that FE&C workers were ready to safely handle any material encountered without always knowing what they were going to find.

Bechtel - 100 B/C Burial Grounds and 100 B/C Remaining Piplines and Sewers (RPAS)

Bechtel - 100 B/C Burial Grounds and 100 B/C Remaining Piplines and Sewers (RPAS)

$32.0 million

2004 - 2007

A backhoe excavates the 100 B/C reactors’ twin box sewer.

Radiological and chemical wastes accumulated over the decades that the B and C reactors ran. Coal and burn pits, debris piles, a caisson site, an electrical laydown area, pipelines, sewers, and auxiliary structures related to the B and C areas were part of the remediation.

Bechtel - 100 B/C Burial Grounds and 100 B/C Remaining Piplines and Sewers (RPAS)

Bechtel - 100 B/C Burial Grounds and 100 B/C Remaining Piplines and Sewers (RPAS)

$32.0 million

2004 - 2007

Gas cylinders excavated at the burial grounds.

Even the well-documented burial grounds were worlds in itself – some filled with 18 ft x 6 ft diameter pipes filled with waste material and buried vertically, others containing contaminate-filled metal tanks, and others as deceptively simple as a pile of debris.

Bechtel - 100 B/C Burial Grounds and 100 B/C Remaining Piplines and Sewers (RPAS)

Bechtel - 100 B/C Burial Grounds and 100 B/C Remaining Piplines and Sewers (RPAS)

$32.0 million

2004 - 2007

A “mountain” of contaminated buried reactor hardware and soil.

In addition, some sites contained outwardly innocuous waste, such as glass, rusted paint cans, assorted scrap metal, railroad ties, and chunks of concrete and structural steel – that could or could be highly contaminated. Much of these materials must be size-reduced, which means cutting these products with giant metal sheers into smaller pieces to fit into containers prior to approval for shipment to ERDF.

Bechtel - 100 B/C Burial Grounds and 100 B/C Remaining Piplines and Sewers (RPAS)

Bechtel - 100 B/C Burial Grounds and 100 B/C Remaining Piplines and Sewers (RPAS)

$32.0 million

2004 - 2007

Overburden stockpiling.

To add to the complexity, the hazardous materials encountered at this job appear in different forms from site to site and are not necessarily detectable by sight or smell. Each substance needed to be dispositioned in its own particular way, with some wastes requiring segregation and/or encapsulation.

Bechtel - 100 B/C Burial Grounds and 100 B/C Remaining Piplines and Sewers (RPAS)

Bechtel - 100 B/C Burial Grounds and 100 B/C Remaining Piplines and Sewers (RPAS)

$32.0 million

2004 - 2007

Workforce wearing Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) is a common sight at 100 B/C.

All these different materials and site configurations required different levels of personal protective equipment (PPE, or hazardous materials protective clothing). In anticipation of encountering highly toxic materials, the proactive approach taken by FE&C was to assume the worst possible scenario until proven otherwise.

Bechtel - 100 B/C Burial Grounds and 100 B/C Remaining Piplines and Sewers (RPAS)

Bechtel - 100 B/C Burial Grounds and 100 B/C Remaining Piplines and Sewers (RPAS)

$32.0 million

2004 - 2007

Nuclear reactor thimbles were just some of the surprises remediated at 100 B/C.

Hazardous materials encountered on site: Land disposal restricted materials (lead) Liquid Mercury Barium Cadmium Palladium Asbestos Highly contaminated reactor components Tritium pots Fuel spacers Reactor fuel Reactor hardware Other reactor items with a radionuclide cobalt 60

Bechtel - 100 B/C Burial Grounds and 100 B/C Remaining Piplines and Sewers (RPAS)

Bechtel - 100 B/C Burial Grounds and 100 B/C Remaining Piplines and Sewers (RPAS)

$32.0 million

2004 - 2007

Aerial view of Hanford B-Reactor site, June 1944.

Of significant accomplishment is the completion of remediation of the first and oldest nuclear burial ground in the world, the 118-B-1 burial ground. This burial ground supported the world’s first nuclear weapons production reactor, B Reactor, which supplied the fuel for the Trinity Test, the first nuclear bomb ever tested, as well as for the Nagasaki bomb that ended World War II.

Washington Closure Hanford (subcontractor to Foothills Environmental) - 100 B/C Remaining Sites Remedial Action

Washington Closure Hanford (subcontractor to Foothills Environmental) - 100 B/C Remaining Sites Remedial Action

$2.9 million

2008-2009

An aerial view of the finished project – completion of all excavation and remediation.

Foothills Environmental was responsible for clean-up of seven waste sites near Hanford’s B and C Reactors. Foothills Environmental subcontracted the field work to Federal Engineers and Constructors. The waste sites contained chrome contaminated soil, piping with chrome liquid and miscellaneous construction debris, as well as radioactive contamination.

Washington Closure Hanford (subcontractor to Foothills Environmental) - 100 B/C Remaining Sites Remedial Action

Washington Closure Hanford (subcontractor to Foothills Environmental) - 100 B/C Remaining Sites Remedial Action

$2.9 million

2008-2009

Piping with liquid hexavalent chromium was a part of this remediation.

Foothills Environmental was responsible for clean-up of seven waste sites near Hanford’s B and C Reactors. Foothills Environmental subcontracted field work to Federal Engineers and Constructors. The waste sites contained chrome contaminated soil, piping with chrome liquid and miscellaneous construction debris, as well as radioactive contamination.

Washington Closure Hanford (subcontractor to Foothills Environmental) - 100 B/C Remaining Sites Remedial Action

Washington Closure Hanford (subcontractor to Foothills Environmental) - 100 B/C Remaining Sites Remedial Action

$2.9 million

2008-2009

Excavating chromium pipline.

Foothills Environmental was responsible for clean-up of seven waste sites near Hanford’s B and C Reactors. Foothills Environmental subcontracted field work to Federal Engineers and Constructors. The waste sites contained chrome contaminated soil, piping with chrome liquid and miscellaneous construction debris, as well as radioactive contamination.

Washington Closure Hanford (subcontractor to Foothills Environmental) - 100 B/C Remaining Sites Remedial Action

Washington Closure Hanford (subcontractor to Foothills Environmental) - 100 B/C Remaining Sites Remedial Action

$2.9 million

2008-2009

Chasing a chromium spill, at an excavation depth of 45 feet.

Foothills Environmental was responsible for clean-up of seven waste sites near Hanford’s B and C Reactors. Foothills Environmental subcontracted field work to Federal Engineers and Constructors. The waste sites contained chrome contaminated soil, piping with chrome liquid and miscellaneous construction debris, as well as radioactive contamination.

Washington Closure Hanford (subcontractor to Foothills Environmental) - 100 B/C Remaining Sites Remedial Action

Washington Closure Hanford (subcontractor to Foothills Environmental) - 100 B/C Remaining Sites Remedial Action

$2.9 million

2008-2009

Chemically contaminated reinforced concrete structures waiting to be demolished, size-reduced and containerized.

Foothills Environmental was responsible for clean-up of seven waste sites near Hanford’s B and C Reactors. Foothills Environmental subcontracted field work to Federal Engineers and Constructors. The waste sites contained chrome contaminated soil, piping with chrome liquid and miscellaneous construction debris, as well as radioactive contamination.

Washington Closure Hanford (subcontractor to Foothills Environmental) - 100 B/C Remaining Sites Remedial Action

Washington Closure Hanford (subcontractor to Foothills Environmental) - 100 B/C Remaining Sites Remedial Action

$2.9 million

2008-2009

Chemical waste tanks excavated near the C Reactor.

Foothills Environmental was responsible for clean-up of seven waste sites near Hanford’s B and C Reactors. Foothills Environmental subcontracted field work to Federal Engineers and Constructors. The waste sites contained chrome contaminated soil, piping with chrome liquid and miscellaneous construction debris, as well as radioactive contamination.

Washington Closure Hanford - 100 F Burial Grounds Remediation

Washington Closure Hanford - 100 F Burial Grounds Remediation

$13.7 million

2005-2008

F Reactor, in its present cocooned state.

F Reactor operated from 1945 to 1965 as one of Hanford’s nine surplus plutonium production reactors for the nation’s nuclear weapons program. The reactor was cocooned in 2003. During reactor construction and operations, waste was deposited in unlined pits and trenches throughout the site.

Washington Closure Hanford - 100 F Burial Grounds Remediation

Washington Closure Hanford - 100 F Burial Grounds Remediation

$13.7 million

2005-2008

The 100F site early in remediation efforts.

The 100-F Area was also home to the Experimental Animal Farm (EAF), which from 1945 to 1976 operated adjacent to the reactor site. The EAF used animals for studying the potential effects of ionizing radiation exposure to humans in the occupational setting. FE&C’s scope was to remediate all radioactive and hazardous wastes associated with the area.

Washington Closure Hanford - 100 F Burial Grounds Remediation

Washington Closure Hanford - 100 F Burial Grounds Remediation

$13.7 million

2005-2008

Pipeline excavation.

FE&C performed excavation of eight burial grounds and 19 waste sites, many containing animal testing wastes from the experimental animal facility, as well as trenching and potholing for confirmatory sampling of waste site contents.

Washington Closure Hanford - 100 F Burial Grounds Remediation

Washington Closure Hanford - 100 F Burial Grounds Remediation

$13.7 million

2005-2008

Transporting roll-off containers.

Scope of work included performing remedial design and construction activities and furnishing necessary facilities, equipment, labor, materials, supplies, and tools for this contract. Operations included excavating, sorting, size reducing, containerizing and transporting materials.

Washington Closure Hanford - 100 F Burial Grounds Remediation

Washington Closure Hanford - 100 F Burial Grounds Remediation

$13.7 million

2005-2008

Excavation of a buried railcar.

Waste site contents included:
  • Mercury- and oil-contaminated equipment
  • Polychlorinated biphenyls
  • Acids
  • Reactor hardware
  • Concrete and steel pipelines
  • Asbestos containing material
  • High dose rate items
  • Radioactive material from the experimental animal facility
  • Railroad tank cars used as incinerators
  • Elemental lead
  • Cadmium
  • Washington Closure Hanford - 100 F Burial Grounds Remediation

    Washington Closure Hanford - 100 F Burial Grounds Remediation

    $13.7 million

    2005-2008

    Sealing and tarping of a container to prepare it for transport to ERDF.

    500,000 tons of contaminated material was sorted, size-reduced, and stockpiled. 437,000 metric tons of this waste was loaded into containers, weighed, sealed, tarped, and transported to the queue where they were ready for shipment to the ERDF (Environmental Remediation Disposal Facility).

    Washington Closure Hanford - 100 F Burial Grounds Remediation

    Washington Closure Hanford - 100 F Burial Grounds Remediation

    $13.7 million

    2005-2008

    Cassion removal.

    A major complexity involved the amount of unknown material present in the site, as this burial ground contained significant quantities of liquid, drums and transuranic wastes of unknown constituencies.

    Washington Closure Hanford - 100 F Burial Grounds Remediation

    Washington Closure Hanford - 100 F Burial Grounds Remediation

    $13.7 million

    2005-2008

    A pile of highly radioactive fuel spacers after being excavated.

    Because the project anticipated materials such as highly radioactive fuel rods (at more than 100 rotogens per hour), workers needed to be ready to respond to any level of hazard. A significant portion of the excavation, sorting and stockpiling was performed in Level B PPE for chemical, biological and radiological worker safety.

    Washington Closure Hanford - 100 F Burial Grounds Remediation

    Washington Closure Hanford - 100 F Burial Grounds Remediation

    $13.7 million

    2005-2008

    The Container Transfer Area (CTA).

    Design and construction upgrades of the existing Container Transfer Area (CTA) and CTA haul roads was part of this project.

    Washington Closure Hanford - 100 F Burial Grounds Remediation

    Washington Closure Hanford - 100 F Burial Grounds Remediation

    $13.7 million

    2005-2008

    A spill kit is ready and waiting for any hazards. FE&C has had noradioactive contamination incidents in the company's history.

    FE&C completed this project ahead of schedule and under approved cost. Despite the high hazards associated with work at this site, FE&C had zero lost-time accidents and zero radioactive contamination incidents.

    Washington Closure Hanford - 100 H Burial Grounds and Remaining Sites Remediation

    Washington Closure Hanford - 100 H Burial Grounds and Remaining Sites Remediation

    $9.4 million

    2008-2010

    The 100 H area from an aerial view.

    The H Reactor was the first reactor to be built at Hanford after World War II, as tensions grew between the United States and Russia during the beginning of the Cold War. It became operational in October of 1949, and represented the fourth nuclear reactor on the Site. The reactor operated for fifteen years. It was shut down in April of 1965. In 2005, H Reactor became the fifth facility on the Site to be cocooned.

    Washington Closure Hanford - 100 H Burial Grounds and Remaining Sites Remediation

    Washington Closure Hanford - 100 H Burial Grounds and Remaining Sites Remediation

    $9.4 million

    2008-2010

    An excavator loads a roll-off truck for transport.

    FE&C is performing the excavation of three burial grounds and eight waste sites at 100-H Area. Work activities includes operations to store, sort, size reduce, containerize and transport the hazardous and radiological materials.

    Washington Closure Hanford - 100 H Burial Grounds and Remaining Sites Remediation

    Washington Closure Hanford - 100 H Burial Grounds and Remaining Sites Remediation

    $9.4 million

    2008-2010

    A sign in the field office at 100H details the number of days on project without a lost-time accident.

    The 100H project was awarded the US Department of Energy’s Voluntary Protection Program (DOE-VPP) STAR Site status, a prestigious safety award. Only contractors whose programs meet the requirements for outstanding safety and health programs receive STAR recognition, the highest achievement level.

    Washington Closure Hanford - 100 H Burial Grounds and Remaining Sites Remediation

    Washington Closure Hanford - 100 H Burial Grounds and Remaining Sites Remediation

    $9.4 million

    2008-2010

    The FE&C team achieves the STAR award.

    Attaining STAR status is not easy and does not happen overnight. Within the VPP, workers and management alike must commit long-term, build on what currently is in place that works, and focus on areas for improvement.

    CH2M Hill - 100 K Remedial Action

    CH2M Hill - 100 K Remedial Action

    $15 million

    2009-2012

    Excavation holes in the 100 K area as remediated by FE&C.

    The 100K area spans 35 acres and includes two reactors, adjacent fuel storage basins, and several facilities and waste sites that supported reactor operations from the 1950s through the 1970s.

    CH2M Hill - 100 K Remedial Action

    CH2M Hill - 100 K Remedial Action

    $15 million

    2009-2012

    Heavy equipment is being used on structures in the shadow of the reactor.

    The remediation includes excavation and handling of chemically and radiologically contaminated waste, debris, and soil associated with contaminated pipelines, cribs, and other waste sites.

    CH2M Hill - 100 K Remedial Action

    CH2M Hill - 100 K Remedial Action

    $15 million

    2009-2012

    A concrete structure is undergoing size reduction in order to meet waste acceptance criteria.

    Heavy equipment is required to reduce large concrete structures in order to meet the shipping requirements for final disposal at the Environmental Remediation Disposal Facility (ERDF).

    CH2M Hill - 100 K Remedial Action

    CH2M Hill - 100 K Remedial Action

    $15 million

    2009-2012

    Roll-off waste containers filled with contamination awaiting transportation.

    Excavated waste is then being loaded into roll-off waste containers and transported to a container transfer area.

    CH2M Hill - 100 K Remedial Action

    CH2M Hill - 100 K Remedial Action

    $15 million

    2009-2012

    Construction of the Waste Transfer Area.

    The work includes sampling and surveying support, and is being performed in radiation areas and requires various levels of personal protective equipment, including work in supplied air. The work is regulated under CERCLA (meaning the area is a superfund site) and portions of the work may be performed under a DOE nuclear safety authorization basis document.

    Washington Closure Hanford (subcontractor to Phoenix Enterprises) - 100 N Remedial Action

    Washington Closure Hanford (subcontractor to Phoenix Enterprises) - 100 N Remedial Action

    $7.8 million

    2010-present

    Historic aerial view of the N Reactor site.

    N Reactor, operable from 1963 to 1987, was the only dual-purpose reactor in the US, as it both generated electric power and produced plutonium. For this project, FE&C’s scope involves remediating radioactive and hazardous soil and debris from waste sites located around the 100-N reactor area. Remediation work also included the removal and size reduction of pipelines that fed the reactors.

    Washington Closure Hanford (subcontractor to Phoenix Enterprises) - 100 N Remedial Action

    Washington Closure Hanford (subcontractor to Phoenix Enterprises) - 100 N Remedial Action

    $7.8 million

    2010-present

    Overburden removal from one of the waste sites.

    These waste sites could contain anything. A wide range of radiologically and chemically contaminated soil, miscellaneous debris, buried equipment, and structural materials is expected to be encountered during this project.

    Washington Closure Hanford (subcontractor to Phoenix Enterprises) - 100 N Remedial Action

    Washington Closure Hanford (subcontractor to Phoenix Enterprises) - 100 N Remedial Action

    $7.8 million

    2010-present

    Remediation activities during the winter months continues.

    Work includes performing design and construction activities, and furnishing necessary facilities, equipment, labor, materials, supplies, and tools. Size-reducing construction debris and process equipment is expected, as is the special handling and repackaging of special waste such as drums, bottles, tanks or other vessels as they are discovered.

    Washington Closure Hanford (subcontractor to Phoenix Enterprises) - 100 N Remedial Action

    Washington Closure Hanford (subcontractor to Phoenix Enterprises) - 100 N Remedial Action

    $7.8 million

    2010-present

    A haul truck enters the survey and tarping station for waste packaging operations.

    Operations include excavating, segregating, size reducing, staging (above cleanup level) and stockpiling (below cleanup level) all materials, then containerizing and loading, weighing and transporting to long-term storage.

    Washington Closure Hanford (subcontractor to Sage Tec) - 100-C-7 “Big Dig” Remediation

    Washington Closure Hanford (subcontractor to Sage Tec) - 100-C-7 “Big Dig” Remediation

    $3 million

    2011-2012

    The site before FE&C's remediation.

    Hanford’s C Reactor was built in the late 1940’s and early 1950’s, and started operations in 1952. It was the sixth reactor built at Hanford, and ran for sixteen years before being shut down in 1969. The waste sites that FE&C are remediating are located west of the reactor and are associated with the previously decommissioned water treatment facilities.

    The 100-C-7 waste sites are approximately 1115 ft west of the C reactor building and consist of the residual contaminant sodium dichromate, which is considered hazardous and is a known carcinogen. This sodium dichromate is associated with concrete that was left in place after the 1997 decommissioning of the water treatment facility's filter pump room. Remedial actions in 2004 found chromium-stained surface soil at 100-C-7-1. These waste sites are less than a mile from the Columbia River.

    Washington Closure Hanford (subcontractor to Sage Tec) - 100-C-7 “Big Dig” Remediation

    Washington Closure Hanford (subcontractor to Sage Tec) - 100-C-7 “Big Dig” Remediation

    $3 million

    2011-2012

    During excavation. To put the scope in perspective, B Reactor in the upper portion and C Reactor is right and center.

    This project's objective is to excavate and properly remove contaminated soils, piping, metal debris and asbestos, and handle stockpiling and staging of Above Cleanup Level and Below Cleanup Level materials. Contaminated soils are packaged to be shipped to Hanford's Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF).

    Once the project began, it was found that contamination depths of hexavalent chromium was greater than expected. Increasing the depth of the excavations increased the size of the excavation at ground level. Because there were additional concrete foundations in these new areas, they had to be abated and removed. These foundations contained piping with asbestos insulation. The expanded remediation also contained overhead power lines and poles, which needed to be relocated.

    Washington Closure Hanford (subcontractor to Sage Tec) - 100-C-7 “Big Dig” Remediation

    Washington Closure Hanford (subcontractor to Sage Tec) - 100-C-7 “Big Dig” Remediation

    $3 million

    2011-2012

    Closer view, showing the stadium-like depths of the dig.

    Because the extent of the chromium contamination has grown, so has the tons of remediation. 600,000 tons of the material were expected to be remediated, and to date, almost 1 million tons have veen excavated. This does not include the volume which will expand to the west after power lines are removed. This makes the project one of the largest of its kind.

    Additionally, the levels and concentration of hexavalent chromium are higher than were expected, which has required additional sorting as well as special packaging and shipping. The project also included the recycling and reuse of large quantities of material including concrete, piping, rebar, grating and structural steel.

    Bechtel - 105D Reactor Safe Storage Enclosure

    Bechtel - 105D Reactor Safe Storage Enclosure

    $2.4 million

    2003-2004

    FE&C performed the disassembly, demolition and safe storage enclosure of the Hanford D Reactor, one of nine surplus plutonium production reactors located on the Hanford Site. Safe Storage Enclosure (SSE) is a process to protect remaining reactor components after decommissioning and decontamination and keep the facility safe from leaking radiation for a 75-year period, giving the government time to decide how to dispose of the highly radioactive reactor core. This process is referred to as “cocooning” the reactor. When a reactor is cocooned, about 80% of the buildings and auxiliary structures which were needed to support the reactor during its operating days are demolished and removed. The remaining 20% of the reactor complex, including the core of the reactor itself, is enclosed in a cement and steel, airtight and watertight structure.

    Bechtel - 105D Reactor Safe Storage Enclosure

    Bechtel - 105D Reactor Safe Storage Enclosure

    $2.4 million

    2003-2004

    D reactor before coccooning operations began.

    D Reactor was a meapons materials production nuclear reactor and was permanently shut down in 1967. In that time, D reactor has been in a condition of minimum surveillance and maintenance. Several areas of the facility were in an advanced state of deterioration, particularly the roof structures.

    Bechtel - 105D Reactor Safe Storage Enclosure

    Bechtel - 105D Reactor Safe Storage Enclosure

    $2.4 million

    2003-2004

    Demolition phase.

    FE&C was responsible for removing contaminated equipment, steel and concrete from the reactor building and managing more than 15,000 tons of waste. Contaminates were remediated, including low-level radioactive materials, asbestos, lead, PCBs, and other heavy materials. The upper structure was demolished to make way for the new cocoon.

    Bechtel - 105D Reactor Safe Storage Enclosure

    Bechtel - 105D Reactor Safe Storage Enclosure

    $2.4 million

    2003-2004

    Wrench motors for control rods.

    Specific reactor equipment needed to be removed before the safe storage enclosure was constructed.

    Bechtel - 105D Reactor Safe Storage Enclosure

    Bechtel - 105D Reactor Safe Storage Enclosure

    $2.4 million

    2003-2004

    Careful demolition of the block walls inside the reactor.

    FE&C both designed and constructed a new 75 year safe storage enclosure over the reactor including constructing a curtain wall over the external lead-plate shield wall. Electrical and control monitoring systems and ventilation equipment were installed as part of this process. FE&C sealed the reactor building openings by means of concrete pourbacks and steel plate covers to seal the doors and tunnel-size openings.

    Bechtel - 105D Reactor Safe Storage Enclosure

    Bechtel - 105D Reactor Safe Storage Enclosure

    $2.4 million

    2003-2004

    Construction of steel. Project risk management included large cranes and extreme heights.

    200-ton cranes and other equipment were used to rig and hoist large internal components. Significant amounts of this work were performed high above ground, complicating project risk management. Other project challenges included an aggressive schedule and high-to-moderate radioactive concerns.

    Bechtel - 105D Reactor Safe Storage Enclosure

    Bechtel - 105D Reactor Safe Storage Enclosure

    $2.4 million

    2003-2004

    The near-completed safe storage enclosure, or cocoon, around the 105D reactor.

    Construction management of the enclosure project included procurements, transportation, testing and acceptance inspection support services. Nuclear and hazardous management were an integral part of all aspects of job performance which was completed on schedule with no lost time or radiological incidents.

    Washington Closure Hanford (subcontractor to Sage Tec) - 309 and 300 Area Remaining Waste Sites

    Washington Closure Hanford (subcontractor to Sage Tec) - 309 and 300 Area Remaining Waste Sites

    $15 Million

    2012 - present

    Highly contaminated research facilities in the 300 Area are located near the Columbia River. Photo credit WCH.

    In the Hanford 300 area, the Department of Energy fabricated fuel for nuclear reactors. At one time, the 300 area contained six small scale nuclear reactors. The surrounding area contained approximately 25 separate locations which were used for disposal of radioactive and hazardous wastes in addition to numerous areas with soil contamination.

    Washington Closure Hanford (subcontractor to Sage Tec) - 309 and 300 Area Remaining Waste Sites

    Washington Closure Hanford (subcontractor to Sage Tec) - 309 and 300 Area Remaining Waste Sites

    $15 Million

    2012 - present

    Recent picture of the 300 Area.

    About 60% of the work will be the testing of remaining underground structures and the demolition, size reduction and loadout of those that are found to be contaminated. These range from waste sites, large metal and concrete structures and components, and piplelines ranging from small to 3 feet in diameter. Work includes using cameras inside pipes to look for cracks and leaks and remediation of the soil underneath if leaks are found, as well as radiological testing and categorization.

    Washington Closure Hanford (subcontractor to Sage Tec) - 309 and 300 Area Remaining Waste Sites

    Washington Closure Hanford (subcontractor to Sage Tec) - 309 and 300 Area Remaining Waste Sites

    $15 Million

    2012 - present

    the team will be responsible for demolition of the shell of the 309 reactor (the dome, pictured here, was removed previously).

    40% of the work will be the demolition, size reduction and loadout of a large reactor shell from the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor located near the Columbia River. This reactor began testing materials for alternative nuclear fuels in the 1960s.

    Washington Closure Hanford (subcontractor to Sage Tec) - 309 and 300 Area Remaining Waste Sites

    Washington Closure Hanford (subcontractor to Sage Tec) - 309 and 300 Area Remaining Waste Sites

    $15 Million

    2012 - present

    The site contains both radiological and chemical radiation.

    The site contains both radiological and chemical contamination. Possible contaminants are primarily fission products and activation products related to reactor operations, and include Cobalt-60, Nickel-53, Uranium, Plutonium, mixed oxide fuel, ethylene glycol, lead, Cadmium, Beryllium and more. FE&C has a long history with remediating these contaminants and many more. The contract scope of work includes integrated work control and work management, engineering, procurement, fabrication and testing, structural stabilization, size reduction, building demolition, shielding, waste packaging, waste transportation, waste site remediation (excavation and loading), waste treatment, grout injection, microencapsulation, solidification of liquids, and packaging waste for final disposal at Hanford's Environmental Remediation Disposal Facility (ERDF).

    Bechtel - 618-4 and 618-5 Burial Grounds Remediation

    Bechtel - 618-4 and 618-5 Burial Grounds Remediation

    $4.3 million

    2002-2003

    The 300 area today.

    In the Hanford 300 area, the Department of Energy fabricated fuel for nuclear reactors. At one time, the 300 area contained six small scale nuclear reactors. The surrounding area contained approximately 25 separate locations which were used for disposal of radioactive and hazardous wastes in addition to numerous areas with soil contamination.

    Bechtel - 618-4 and 618-5 Burial Grounds Remediation

    Bechtel - 618-4 and 618-5 Burial Grounds Remediation

    $4.3 million

    2002-2003

    Personnel in Level B Personal Protective Equipment (PPE).

    FE&C excavated waste material and soils, sampled and verified cleaned up areas, and performed load out and backfilling. Demolition and remediation activities were completed for this project under cost and four months ahead of schedule, while maintaining a zero-accident record.

    Bechtel - 618-4 and 618-5 Burial Grounds Remediation

    Bechtel - 618-4 and 618-5 Burial Grounds Remediation

    $4.3 million

    2002-2003

    Soil remediation was also part of this job.

    Materials excavated from the burial grounds included:
  • 1100 Drums of uranium chips submerged in oil
  • Large bore concrete blocks
  • Structural steel members
  • Large bore pipe melter
  • Kilns

  • Other building products

    Bechtel - 618-4 and 618-5 Burial Grounds Remediation

    Bechtel - 618-4 and 618-5 Burial Grounds Remediation

    $4.3 million

    2002-2003

    Buried drums from 1940-1950 contained (left) graphite and uranium chips and (right) uranium chips and oil.

    Among the most challenging of these materials were the 786 aging drums. Drums contained two kinds of nuclear waste – uranium chips and uranium oxide powder. Either material can have significant environmental and safety consequences if not treated properly. Uranium chip radioactive waste can ignite when exposed to air; uranium oxide powder (which is toxic to humans) has the potential to become airborne if the drum separates during handling.

    Bechtel - 618-4 and 618-5 Burial Grounds Remediation

    Bechtel - 618-4 and 618-5 Burial Grounds Remediation

    $4.3 million

    2002-2003

    Workers learn special handling methods on how to to transport and overpack 50-year-old drums of uranium chips.

    FE&C developed a process for managing deteriorating drums which enabled ease and handling while improving safety conditions, expediting production, and increasing labor efficiency.

    Bechtel - 618-4 and 618-5 Burial Grounds Remediation

    Bechtel - 618-4 and 618-5 Burial Grounds Remediation

    $4.3 million

    2002-2003

    A pile of soil that contained spent nuclear fuel rods from inside a reactor.

    Furthermore, FE&C removed contaminated soil that contained radioactive constituents above the cleanup level criteria, and dangerous waste such as:
  • Lead
  • Barium
  • Chromium 6
  • Asbestos
  • Silver
  • Mercury
  • Cadmium
  • Syncrude Canada - Ft. McMurray, Alberta Demolition and Salvage

    Syncrude Canada - Ft. McMurray, Alberta Demolition and Salvage

    $1.5 million

    2008

    Syncrude’s tower, before demolition.

    The Athabasca oil sands are large deposits of bitumen, or extremely heavy crude oil, located in northeastern Alberta, Canada – roughly centered around the boomtown of Fort McMurray. These oil sands are being mined for an alternative to liquid petroleum.

    Syncrude Canada - Ft. McMurray, Alberta Demolition and Salvage

    Syncrude Canada - Ft. McMurray, Alberta Demolition and Salvage

    $1.5 million

    2008

    The same tower, during demolition.

    The sands consist of a mixture of crude bitumen, silica sand, clay minerals, and water. They are the largest reservoir of crude bitumen in the world. Together, these oil sand deposits contain about 1.7 trillion barrels of bitumen-in-place, comparable to the world’s total proven reserves of conventional petroleum.

    Syncrude Canada - Ft. McMurray, Alberta Demolition and Salvage

    Syncrude Canada - Ft. McMurray, Alberta Demolition and Salvage

    $1.5 million

    2008

    Crumpled staircases during demolition, looking a lot like an MC Esher optical illusion.

    Syncrude Canada contracted with FE&C for demolition services. FE&C completed demolition of Inbit Tower 24 and Aurora Bitman Tower, performing loadout and processing of 2,000 tons of steel and 1,500 tons of concrete, and size-reduced large tanks. Materials were then sorted and readied for salvage use.

    Fortune Minerals - Golden Giant Mine Decommissioning and Demolition

    Fortune Minerals - Golden Giant Mine Decommissioning and Demolition

    $19 million

    2008-2009

    The 1.9 million square feet of Golden Giant Mine, before FE&C completely demolished the facility.

    The Golden Giant Mine was a gold mine in the Hemlo mining camp in Ontario, Canada. Three prospectors discovered gold there in the early 1980s, starting a gold rush not seen in Canada since the Klondike gold rush of the late 19th century. With its first pour in April of 1985, Golden Giant was the first mine in the camp to ship. During its 21-year life, the mine produced over 6 million ounces of gold. The mine ceased operation in 2005 and closed permanently in 2006.

    Fortune Minerals - Golden Giant Mine Decommissioning and Demolition

    Fortune Minerals - Golden Giant Mine Decommissioning and Demolition

    $19 million

    2008-2009

    Siding is carefully dismantled with the use of man-lifts and cranes.

    FE&C completed the Golden Giant Mine dismantlement and demolition project, dismantling 1.9 million square feet of facilities including removal of 250 ton crushers, ball mills, chutes, 110’ high conveyors, and 500 hp motors.

    Fortune Minerals - Golden Giant Mine Decommissioning and Demolition

    Fortune Minerals - Golden Giant Mine Decommissioning and Demolition

    $19 million

    2008-2009

    Very large cranes were used on this project.

    Dismantling and demolition of the mine site facilities was undertaken to reclaim valuable equipment for re-use at other sites by the current owner and includes certain buildings, grinding mills, the crushing plant, flotation cells, compressors, boilers, generators, conveyors, pumps, motors, overhead cranes, transformers, assay laboratory, electrical switch gear and other equipment. 

    Fortune Minerals - Golden Giant Mine Decommissioning and Demolition

    Fortune Minerals - Golden Giant Mine Decommissioning and Demolition

    $19 million

    2008-2009

    Demolition used very large equipment.

    Work included demolishing 83 structures via shear and large excavator. Furthermore, FE&C performed loadout and size reducing 17,000 tons of steel and 14,000 tons of concrete including large monolithic blocks.

    Fortune Minerals - Golden Giant Mine Decommissioning and Demolition

    Fortune Minerals - Golden Giant Mine Decommissioning and Demolition

    $19 million

    2008-2009

    Immediately after the use of explosive demolition.

    Explosive demolition was utilized for two parts of the project: to demolish the head frame, a 176 foot tall structure, and the 90 foot tall, two million gallon fine or bin.

    Washington Closure Hanford (subcontractor to Phoenix Enterprises) - IU 2 & 6 and 100 H Remedial Action

    Washington Closure Hanford (subcontractor to Phoenix Enterprises) - IU 2 & 6 and 100 H Remedial Action

    $13.6 million

    2009-present

    Workers carefully excavate an archeological site near the original Hanford Construction Camp for any remaining artifacts.

    IU 2 & 6 encompasses about 23 square miles of the northeastern portion of the Hanford Site, away from the nine surplus plutonium production reactor areas. Six waste sites are undergoing remediation. In addition, this contract included excavation for an archeological dig looking for historic artifacts from the area around the original Hanford Construction Camp so scientists can learn more about the lives of men and women who worked on the Manhattan Project.

    Washington Closure Hanford (subcontractor to Phoenix Enterprises) - IU 2 & 6 and 100 H Remedial Action

    Washington Closure Hanford (subcontractor to Phoenix Enterprises) - IU 2 & 6 and 100 H Remedial Action

    $13.6 million

    2009-present

    Excavators remediating structural and soil waste at 100 H.

    In addition to the work at IU 2 and 6, the client awarded the Phoenix/FE&C team a change order to add scope to perform excavation and remediation at two waste sites at the 100 H area – a place where FE&C has done work before. Rather than bidding out this new job, Washington Closure Hanford trusted our team to get the work done right.

    Washington Closure Hanford (subcontractor to Phoenix Enterprises) - IU 2 & 6 and 100 H Remedial Action

    Washington Closure Hanford (subcontractor to Phoenix Enterprises) - IU 2 & 6 and 100 H Remedial Action

    $13.6 million

    2009-present

    Road construction and maintenance is part of this project.

    The work includes performing remedial design and construction activities and furnishing necessary facilities, equipment, labor, materials, supplies and tools. Work scope also includes constructing and maintaining haul roads.

    Washington Closure Hanford (subcontractor to Phoenix Enterprises) - IU 2 & 6 and 100 H Remedial Action

    Washington Closure Hanford (subcontractor to Phoenix Enterprises) - IU 2 & 6 and 100 H Remedial Action

    $13.6 million

    2009-present

    Excavators remediating structural and soil waste at IU 2 & 6.

    Operations are being performed to excavate, segregate, size reduce, stage above cleanup level and stockpile below cleanup level materials, containerize, load, weigh, and transport materials from the waste sites to the container transfer areas and/or perform direct loading.

    Washington Closure Hanford (subcontractor to Phoenix Enterprises) - IU 2 & 6 and 100 H Remedial Action

    Washington Closure Hanford (subcontractor to Phoenix Enterprises) - IU 2 & 6 and 100 H Remedial Action

    $13.6 million

    2009-present

    Management is on site almost daily to communicate with project personnel.

    A wide range of chemically and/or radiologically contaminated soil, miscellaneous debris, buried equipment and structural material may be encountered during remedial action activities. This includes container tarping and maintenance and on-site access control.

    Washington Closure Hanford (subcontractor to Phoenix Enterprises) - IU 2 & 6 and 100 H Remedial Action

    Washington Closure Hanford (subcontractor to Phoenix Enterprises) - IU 2 & 6 and 100 H Remedial Action

    $13.6 million

    2009-present

    Excavators uncover and size-reduce contaminated foundations at 100H.

    In addition to the contaminated soil, structural materials, medal debris and other miscellaneous debris, this work scope includes performance of operations and incidentals for the handling, processing and staging of buried drums and industrial hygiene monitoring.

    Washington Closure Hanford (subcontractor to Phoenix Enterprises) - IU 2 & 6 and 100 H Remedial Action

    Washington Closure Hanford (subcontractor to Phoenix Enterprises) - IU 2 & 6 and 100 H Remedial Action

    $13.6 million

    2009-present

    Excavators uncover and size-reduce contaminated foundations at 100H.

    Full remediation, including transportation and disposal of excavated waste, sampling and waste site closeout documentation, backfill and revegetation is to be completed in 2011.